GM quality has improved over the years but it still does not quite match what you will see from the best in the industry. They adopted six sigma philosophy back in the early 2000s so what you see today is reliable transportation that gets you around and will not strand you.
Having said that, only a few manufactuers today achieve what your old Volvo did. One in particular for the most part is Toyota/Lexus. Their cars still last 200,000 for the most part with minimal fuss. One way they do this is they are late adopters to the latest features. For example, while GM and other brands have Andriod and Apple interfaces on nearly all cars offered in 2016, Toyota is only now starting to offer that on the models that are being redesigned. So if you don't want the latest and greatest, Toyota is your best bet to go 200,000.
Your old brand, Volvo, is no longer owned by Ford and is now owned by a Chinese company called Geeley. Geeley is trying to keep Volvo management and is investing in it but no one knows how the quality is going to end up today in the new cars built. It is an open questionmark and is a risk for anyone buying their cars.
Nissan has not been the same since it started working with Renault. Their reliablity has gone downhill and is no better than GM anymore and in many cases is worse. Honda is hit and miss. If they do a transmission redesign you have to avoid the first year the car is bulit (and sometimes more). I owned two Hondas (an Acura TL and Honda Accord) with V6 engines and both suffered complete losses of the transmission at 60,000 and 30,000 respectively. Four cylinder Honda are very good - as good as Toyota - but six cylinders are hit and miss as they just changed the transmissions again and the cars are all very unreilable in the six cylinder configuraiton. They will fix it but the question is always when.
The Eurpoean cars are all good cars but again, they do suffer from problems which will not match your Volvo. Some BMW's burn oil. Some Mercedes have electical problems. It is a crap shoot with them.
Even carmakers like Subaru have known problems. A percentage of Subaru's burn oil. Consumer reports says about 10% of them do after less than 100,000 miles.
I do agree when you said the GM cars have some issues. I own a 2006 Saab 9-3 with 143,000 which was made by GM. It rattles - no doubt. However, the problems have been minor (lost the AC/heat fan for $300 this year, lost the alternator at 70,000 for $300, repaired a seat rip at 120,000 for $200). However, at the discount I got the car compared to buying the eqivalent Lexus I am satisfied with dealing with these small issues. I owned an Enclave as well but did not need a car that large anymore so after only 5 years and about 60,000 I got rid of it for about 50% what I paid for it. That was low mileage, but I did not have any of the issues you mentioned (the car was too young).
I proably will look around the market again when the time comes but suspect I will look at GM, Toyota, and Subaru (we also own a 2013 Subaru Legacy with only 41,000 on it). Those three brands I generally trust to get me around and last 200,000.