As a group, hatchbacks or wagons offer the best visiblity
Subaru Foresters are "up a bit", have great driver's position / visiablity and loads of cargo space. Despite some having some issues in the past with head gasket and wheel bearing failure, those built after 2003 are much less prone to those issues and quite reliable. (of course you will want to check Consumer Reports & True Delta for more specifics. However, they do tend to be have a fair amount of road noise until the 2017 models. Also you will pay a premium for the AWD which you don't mention desiring.
Another hatch worth considering is the Kia Soul. Visablity doesn't match the Forester, but the driving postion is comfortably upright and they have lots of cargo space. Also very reliable and reasonably quiet. If you driving rarely involves more than 80 miles / day or trips you might consider a Soul EV which currently is available for an incredibly low lease rate of $139/mo with ~ $2,000 down (varies a bit based on location). The electrics are spooky quiet!
Last but not least, if you can find a rare Kia Rondo, these excell in all the areas you mention.These we only sold in USA from 2007 to 2011 (maybe a year or two longer). I have an employee with a 2007 who has gone over 100K with no mechanical issues.
If a sedan is more your style, the Honda Accord or Toyota Camry both boast good visibility decent cargo space, reliablity and quiet rides at reasonable prices.
With any of these try to find one with a back up camera although those tend to be more recent models and may be out of your price range - with the possible exception of the Kia Soul. You can always add an aftermarket cam for $300 to $500 - well worth it if you have trouble turning your head for backing up.