Your best bet is probably a 2010 Mazda MX-5 Miata. I owned a 1994 Miata and it might be my favorite car I've owned. It has a great manual transmission and is fun to drive. Nothing ever went wrong with the car until someone rear-ended me and totaled it. It's not the most practical choice because the truck is small and it seats two very snug.
Also, a Civic Si could be a good fit, particularly a 2010 or 2011 because the Civics after were cheap and chintzy. The Si is fun and pretty quick. It might be more comfortable than the Miata.
It'll be hard to find a manual transmission car for under $10k that isn't a former rental car or Nissan Versa, Ford Focus, Kia Rio, etc. I'd get an older car with an automatic because they will be more comfortable, have more features, and drive better overall.
My #1 choice is one that is out of your mileage and year requirements. Consider a 2008 Acura TL for its comfort, powerful 258hp V6 engine, rock-solid reliability, and agile handling. It's definitely more fun than a typical Camry or Civic. You could easily get 200k+ miles out of this car.