BMW has some of the highest repair costs.
I have almost no experience in snowy weather, but based on different websites online, Volvo, Audi, and the CX-5 have some good AWD systems. Of course Subaru and Jeep do too, but you don't want a Subaru and the Jeeps spell trouble. I know Volvo has seats that many people consider "different." The seats are contoured very nicely with agressive bolstering and lumbar support, which makes it great for long trips or bumpy snowy driving. Here's an article dedicated to Volvo's seats which are apparently being discontinued:
The used Volvo has high repair costs compared to a new CX-5, which will likely serve you well for many years. When there isn't bad weather, the CX-5 will be the most fun to drive. Also, if you are nervous in the snowy weather, you'll get many active safety features with the Mazda that you can't with the older used Volvo. The used Volvo XC60 interior is outdated and filled with small buttons. On the CX-5, there is a control wheel as well as a touch screen, so if you wear gloves the wheel will still work.
For the 2017 CX-5: A lot of journalists paise the CX-5's seats, particularly the powered leather seats. The Touring and above have power driver seat without power lumbar support. Only the Grand Touring has the power lumbar support. Power lumbar is pretty important for someone with back pain. The Grand Touring is about $30k. If you want to add the Premium package for $1800, you'll have 2-position memory driver's seat, power passenger seat without power lumbar, heads up display, heated rear seats (front is already heated), heated steering wheel, and windshield wiper de-icer. I think you'll be able to negotiate the increase in price caused by the Premium package to stay in your budget.